The increase in the occurrence of new (emerging) diseases and the spread of exotic ones along with increasing levels of endemic and food-borne diseases require earlier, better and safer surveillance to achieve this objective. Furthermore, it is recognised that improved protection of human health will require more effective linking of animal and human health surveillance systems as well as adoption of interdisciplinary approaches, which is one of the aspects of the One Health concept. However, financial constraints of governments in times of public spending cuts have reduced or limited investments in surveillance of animal disease.

In addition, cross-compliance and equivalence issues constrain governments in relation to surveillance strategy design. Efficient and practical solutions taking advantage of the novel scientific methodologies are urgently needed, as well as integration of epidemiological approaches with socio-economic and qualitative methods where appropriate.